Applications of Nanoengineered scaffolds in Tissue growth and Regenerative medicine:
It is becoming increasingly evident that interaction between cells and their microenvironment at the nanoscale level can reorganize cytoskeleton and induce specific cell signaling that regulates the fate of the cell. Thus, nanostructured scaffolds that mimic the tissue-specific microenvironment have been of great interest in nanotechnology for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Scaffolds with biochemical, mechanical, and electrical properties similar to those of native tissues have been nanoengineered to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and even maturation, thereby fostering cell function and tissue growth.
An extracellular matrix-like architecture can be fabricated by nanopatterning, electrospinning, self-assembly, conjugation of adhesion motifs to the matrix backbone, or sulfating the matrix backbone. The properties of this extracellular matrix-like architecture can be adjusted by incorporation of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and nanoparticles. For instance, developed an electrically conductive hybrid hydrogel scaffold based on gold nanoparticles homogeneously synthesized throughout a polymer template gel. The expression of connexin-43 increased in neonatal cardiomyocytes grown on the scaffold, suggesting that an electrically active scaffold impregnated with gold can enhance cardiomyocyte function.