Biomedicine is the branch that deals with Medical sciences and Applies Biology and physiology. Biomedicine also relate to many categories in Health, Molecular biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cell biology and Genetics. This branch relies more on theory, the history of the disease, the medicines recommended, their effectiveness and finally the result. Another important feature of this branch is that it works for both with humans and animals. This is the first common branch of medicine wherein the animals and humans will be given equal importance while finding the solution for different health diseases.
Biomaterials are those materials which are usually made of multiple components that interact with biological system. Biomaterials are normally used in medical application like drug delivery, therapeutics, and diagnostics to replace a natural function. The most commonly used biomaterials are polymers. All biomaterials meet certain criteria and regulatory requirements before they can be qualified for use in medical applications. Biomaterial Science has a broad scope that covers the fundamental science of biomaterials through to their biomedical applications.
Tissue engineering is an emerging field which involves biology, medicine, and engineering that is likely to revolutionize the ways we improve the health and quality of life for millions of people worldwide by restoring, maintaining, or enhancing tissue and organ function. In other words, tissue engineering is the development of artificial tissue and organ systems. The term regenerative medicine is often used synonymously with tissue engineering, although those involved in regenerative medicine place more emphasis on the use of stem cells to produce tissues
Biodegradable Biomaterials are those which are intended to get degraded in the body safely. These materials are either magnesium based or iron based alloys. They are mainly applied for cardiovascular implants as stents and orthopaedics. Hydrogels are the polymeric materials containing water, which are the first biomaterials for human use. Nanofiber scaffolds are used for orthopaedic tissue repair and regeneration. Biomimetic materials are those which can show cellular responses mediated by scaffold and peptide interactions from extracellular matrix.
The Cellular and Molecular mechanics is the backbone of tissue repair and current therapies including tissue engineering is limited. Tissue engineering often involves cells and scaffolds to replace damaged tissue. It originated, in part, as a means of affecting the delivery of biomolecules. There should be controlled release of biomolecules for activating cell delivery. Biomolecules can enable modulate inflammatory response, cell engraftment, and the behavior of the delivered cells.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is most commonly used technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering. The main aim of 3D printing is to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity and rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. 3D printing techniques also require different materials like Thermoplastics; they are used for extrusion and commonly used in the 3D printing process. The two dominant thermoplastics are Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polylactid Acid (PLA). ABS is a fossil-based plasticand PLA a bio-based plastic.
Stem cell technology is developing fast in the field of biomaterials. Combining stem cells with biomaterial scaffolds provides a promising response in engineering tissues and cellular delivery. Recent stem cell technologies have opened several ways for biomaterial research, such as developing disease models, drug development, tissue regeneration and development of functional organoids. The process also aim for development of adult stem cell-based tissue engineered biomaterial implants and organoids. This technique develops the cells to generate and use induced Pluripotent cells (iPS) from differentiated cells.
Implant or Implantation refers to insertion of biological material into the body for diagnosis or therapies. Biomaterial is generally used in dental Implants. There are different classification of dental implants they are based on Surface of implant, Implant design, the Type of material used and Attachment mechanism.
Biomaterials play an important role in therapeutic delivery like biocompatible polymeric gene carriers have been introduced for treating diverse genetic and acquired diseases. The researchers are working on the biomaterial approaches to significantly improve outcomes of gene therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. The nano biomaterial architecture is the basis for fabrication of novel integrated systems involving cells, growth factors, proteins, cytokines, drug molecules, and other biomolecules with the rationale of creating a universal, all-purpose nano-biomedical device for personalized therapies.
Tissue engineering (TE) has given many emerging therapies that made a great success such as bone grafts, Histopathology, Tissue Biomarkers, valid approach to the bone regeneration/substitution. In contrast to classic biomaterial approach, TE is based on the understanding of tissue formation. Histopathology is the microscopic examination of tissue to study the diseases present in it. Tissue biomarker refers to the study of molecular or cellular structure of cell or tissues that is used to identify the disease caused due to the alterations present in the cells. The other most useful or important invention is the Photodynamic therapy. This is the form of light, sensitive chemical substance with molecular oxygen that is used to kills the foreign substance from the cells like Fungi, Bacteria and viruses.
An Artificial organ is an engineered tissue that is implanted into human for interacting with living tissue to replace natural organ for the purpose of restoring a patient’s state of living back to as normal as possible. The main purpose of this process is for supporting patient’s life. The Microchip or 'organs-on-chips' provide organ function and disease, and for applications such as toxicity tests of drug candidates. An alternative approach is to foster the ability of cells to self-assemble, in the hope that they will recapitulate actual organ development and reveal insights into the process.
Soft tissues are the tissue that connects, support or surround other Structure or Organ of Human body. The initial selection of material should be based on sound materials engineering practice. The success of soft tissue implantshas primarily been due to the development of synthetic polymers. This is mainly because the polymers can be tailor made to match the properties of soft tissues.
Regenerative medicine is the branch of medicine that develops methods to repair or replace damaged or diseased cells, organs or tissues. Regenerative medicine includes the generation and use of therapeutic stem cells, tissue engineering and the production of artificial organs. One of the greatest needs for regenerative therapy is in the field of whole organ replacement. The first bone marrow and solid-organ transplants were done years ago. But advances in developmental and cell biology, immunology, and other fields are new opportunities to refine existing regenerative therapies and develop new ones.
There are many applications of Tissue engineering but majorly they are used in Organ Transplantation and Therapeutic Cloning like Bio Artificial liver device, Artificial pancreas, Artificial bladders, and Cartilage. When there is damage in our body cells or organs we use tissue engineering techniques to overcome the damage by replacing the old cell. There is wide range of Tissue Engineered product or materials which are used to cure diseases in human and save life.
Tissue engineering is almost success process but still it has certain drawbacks. The main challenge is it is very difficult to construct Scaffolds. It takes much time to understand and research on particular Organ and Tissues. Technology should be advanced so that it becomes easy for researchers to spot diseases in the base Tissue. Many people oppose tissue engineering due to their belief that life begins at conception, and an artificial organ to save someone’s life defies natural order.