Cell-Nanotopography Interactions :
Living cells are highly sensitive to local nanoscale topographic patterns within ECM. In the pursuit to control cell function by underlying nanotopographic cues, engineered substrates with different nanofeatures have become rapidly adopted. Top-down lithographic techniques are now utilized to create various nanopatterns, such as gratings, pillars, and pits, in a precisely controlled manner. Techniques like micelle lithography, anodization, and electrospinning can also be used to create an array of nanospheres, vertical nanotubes, and nanofibers. Additionally, less-ordered nanotopographies are now being fabricated by polymer demixing, chemical etching, electrospinning, and phase separation processes.