Nanofabricated Scaffolds :
While critical insights into 2D cell-nanotopography interactions are now enabling us to direct cell behavior, considerable efforts have been made to develop 3D artificial scaffolds at the nanoscale for tissue engineering applications. Nanofibrous scaffolds are now under wide investigation as they exhibit a very similar physical structure to protein nanofibers in ECM. Among the three dominant nanofabrication methods, electrospinning is a very simple and practical technique, suitable for the creation of aligned and complex 3D structures; self-assembly technology emulates the process of ECM assembly and can thus produce very thin nanofibers; and phase separation allows for continuous fiber network fabrication with tunable pore structure, and the formation of sponge-like scaffolding. Nanocomposites based scaffolds (e.g. nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen) are, on the other hand, very popular in hard-tissue engineering, particularly for the reconstruction of bone tissue. Beyond nanofibers and nanocomposites, carbon nanotubes have also attracted attention due to their mechanical strength and electrical conductivity, and because they can be readily incorporated into 3D architectures.